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Joni Varner

Test Terms for 2008 Book (Cinema 1 / Exam #1)

You will need to bring a Scantron (#882) Form to class (for sale in the LACC Bookstore) and a #2 pencil. This is NOT an open book test, but use of an English/Foreign Language Dictionary is allowed.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Film & Video Systems

  • Film vs. Video issues:
    • 24/30 frames per second
    • Contrast Ratio
    • Acquisition (camera) Format
    • Postproduction (edit) Format
    • Telecine/Scan
    • Single vs. Multi-camera
  • Resolution: (p.10)
    • Standard Definition (720 X 480)
    • High Definition 2K (1920 X 1080)
    • Film & 4K (4000 X 3000)
  • Three Stages of Filmmaking (p.2)
  • Intermittent Movement (p.45)
  • Shutter/Claw/Aperture (p.45)
  • Film Formats`(p.45-53)
  • [S-8mm,16 & Super16mm, 35mm, IMAX]
  • 4 & 3 Perf (holes per frame) (pp. 51 & 270)
  • Negative / Reversal (Positive) Film (p.48)
  • Speed (fast/slow) = sensitivity to light (pp.149 & 233 & 259)
  • Aspect Ratios: (pp. 47 & 87-88)
    • [1.33:1] 4:3 Academy
    • [1.66:1] European & Super 16mm
    • [1.78:1] 16:9 U.S. Digital TV & HDTV
    • [1.85:1] U.S. Wide Screen Movies
    • [2.35:1] Scope
  • Anamorphic (scope/flat)(pp. 52 & 87-88 & 91)
  • Widescreen Video (pp. 88-91 & 94):
    • Horizontal Stretch/ Squeeze
    • Letterbox /Side Bar
    • Blow Up/ Edge Crop
  • Single/ Double System Sound (pp. 22)
  • Lip/Crystal Sync & Wild Sound (pp. 53-54)
  • ADR or Looping (p.80)
  • Foley (sync) (pp. 634-5)
  • SFX (non-sync sound effects)
  • Dailies or Rushes (p. 56)
    • Video out, Film out, D.I.
  • HDTV (High Definition TV) (pp. 9-20)
    • Lines: 1080 (HD) 720 (HD), 480 (SD)
    • Scan: Interlace & Progressive
    • Frames (Per Second): 24, 30, and 60
    • Aspect Ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
    • Codec (p. 20)
    • Mbps (Megabits per second)
    • Component/Composite/RGB (p.17)
  • CCD & CMOS (single vs. 3 chip) (pp. 5 & 136)
  • Pixels (picture elements) (p. 5)
  • NTSC (U.S. TV standard – analog)
  • PAL (Eurasia TV Standard) (p.5)
  • Analog Video (VHS, Hi-8) (p.8)
  • Digital Video (Mini-DV, HDV, etc.)
  • FireWireª (i-Linkª) (p.24)
  • Prosumer/Professional/Broadcast (p. 24)
  • Digital Standard Definition (pp. 25-27)
  • Digital High Definition: (pp. 28-33)
  • HDV (tape)
  • DVCProHD (Panasonic)
  • HDCam (Sony)
  • AVCHD (Advanced Video Codec)
  • Digital Cinematography: (pp. 33-34)
  • Panavisionª, Dalsaª, Arriª, Grass Valleyª
  • Recording Media (pp. 35-37):
  • Tape, DVD /Disks, HDD, Flash Memory

Chapter 2: Before You Begin Production

  • Capture/Postproduction/Distribution (p.59)
  • Video Tap (Video Assist) (pp.70, 247)
  • DTV (Digital Television) ATSC (pp. 63-66)
  • Camera Capture Speed: (pp. 70-1 & 357-60)
    • Slow Motion – Overcranking
    • Fast Motion – Undercranking
    • Time Lapse – Intervalometer
  • Blurring/Strobing (judder) (p. 361)

Chapter 3: The Video Camcorder

  • Elements of the camcorder (p.110)
  • White Balance (p.113-117)
    • Preset for 3200ºK (indoor)
  • Viewfinder Zebra, Focus (p.112)
  • Focus & Exposure (p. 118-120)
  • Backlight Compensation (p.119)
  • Gain or Sensitivity (p. 134)
  • Video Shutter (pp.135-136)
  • (Lecture only): 16 x 9, SP Tape Speed, Dew, 16-bit audio, Image Stabilization
  • Head Drum / Tape (p. 122)
  • Batteries: (p. 131)
    • Nickel-Cadmium Battery [NiCad]
    • Nickel-Metal Hydride [HiMH]
    • Lithium-Ion [Li Ion]
  • SMPTE Time Code (p. 22)

Chapter 4: The Lens

  • Lens Elements/Barrel (p.141)
  • Focal Plane (sensor or film) (p.141)
  • Prime Lenses (p.141)
  • Zoom Lenses (p.141)
    • Optical/Digital Zoom (p.160)
    • Focusing a Zoom Lens (p. 157)
  • Focal Lengths (p.141, 145):
    • Short Focal Length [wide angle]
    • Medium Focal Length [normal]
    • Long Focal Length [telephoto]
  • Zoom vs. Dolly (pp. 144) Perspective
  • Speed:
    • Fast Lens/Slow Lens (p. 149)
    • Iris Diaphragm (p.150)
  • F–Stop Series: (p.150)
    • [1, 1.4, 2, 2.8. 4. 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32]
  • Stopping Down/Up (p.150)
  • T-Stop (p.150)
  • Depth of Field: (p.151)
    • 3 Factors for Depth of Field (p.154)
  • Hyperfocal Distance (pp. 158-159)
  • Where to Focus? (p.155)
  • Pulling Focus (p.156)
  • Prime Lenses for Special Use (pp.163-4)
  • Close-Up/Split Field Diopters (pp.165-7)
  • Lens Quality: (pp. 167-171)
    •          Vignetting, Chromatic, Sharpness, Flare
  • Depth of Focus/Back Focus (pp.173-176)
  • Lens Care (p.176)

Chapter 7: The Film Image

  • Raw stock (p. 254)
  • Emulsion/ Base (pp. 254-256)
  • Negative/Positive Process (pp. 255-256)
  • Characteristic Curve (pp. 256-259)
  • Gamma (p. 260)
  • Primaries: Red, Green, Blue (p. 258)
  • Film Speed: (pp. 259-260)
    • Exposure Index (E.I.), ASA, ISO
  • Contrast (p.260)
  • Lab Processes  (p.262-264)
    • Pushing, Pulling, Flashing, Bleach Bypass
  • Graininess  (faster stock) (p.265)
  • Kodak Look Managerª (p.266)
  • Tungsten vs. Daylight Balance (p.268)
  • Kodakª Identification: (pp.269-270):
    • 72xx (16mm), 52xx (35mm)
  • Latent Edge Numbers (pp. 271-272)
    • Kodak KeyKodesª & Fujiª MR Codes
  • Handling Film Stock (pp. 273-274)
  • Exposure: (pp. 275-276) Over & Under
  • Light Meters: (pp. 276-279)
  • Direct / Indirect Reading (p. 279)
  • Incident Light (point at camera) (p. 276)
  • Spot Meter (p.283)
  • Flat Disk Diffuser (p. 283)
  • Reading the Meter  (pp. 280-281)
  • Subject Reflectance (brightness) (p.277)
  • Shutter: (p. 280)
    • 180 degree shutter (p.233 in Chap. 6)
    • Exposure = Intensity x Time (p.233)
    • 1/48 second  = 1/24 x 1/2
  • T-stops used not F-stops (p. 281)
  • Filter Factor (p. 300)
  • Backlight/Special Exposures (pp. 286-8)
  • Footcandles (p. 289)
  • Exposure Range & Error (pp. 290-291)
    • ƒ/stops: negative (9-10) reversal (5-6)
  • Exposure Control [four ways] (pp. 291-2)

Chapter 8: Color & Filters

  • Additive & Subtractive Primaries (p. 292)
  • Color Temperature: (pp. 297-299)
  • Kelvin Temperature Scale
  • Warm Light Source [3200 K tungsten]
  • Cold Light Source [5600 K daylight]
  • Conversion Filters: (p. 301)
    • [85 – orange] tungsten for daylight
    • [80 – blue] daylight for tungsten
  • Matte Boxes/Lens Shade (p. 307)
  • Other Filters (pp.301-306):
    • UV/1A
    • Neutral Density
    • Graduated
    • Polarizing
    • Diffusion
    • Low Contrast
    • Fog/Star
    • Software

There will be a total of 50 questions in the format of Multiple Choice and True/False.
There will also be extra credit questions on the videos that have been shown in class. 

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