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Joni Varner

Lecture Outline & Test Terms for 2013 Book (Cinema 1 / Exam #1)

Page numbers are from: The Filmmaker's Handbook 2013 Edition. You will need to bring a Scantron (#882) form to class (for sale in the LACC Bookstore an ASG) and a #2 pencil. This is NOT an open book test, but use of an English/foreign language dictionary is allowed.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Digital & Film Systems (pp. 1-52)

 
  • Single Camera [lecture only]:
    • Edited after the shoot
    • Movies/TV Drama/Commercials
  • Multi-camera (3 or more cameras) [lecture only]:
    • Edited live OR after the shoot
    • Talk/Game/Magazine/Sports/SitCom.
  • SD (Standard Definition) [lecture only]:
    • DV; NTSC; One resolution: 720X480
    • Aspect ratio: 4:3; 30 frames per second
    • PAL (Europe + Asia TV: analog)
  • HD (High Definition) [lecture only]:
    • ATSC-Multiple Resolutions/Frame Rates
    • Resolutions: 1920x1080, 1280x720
    • Aspect ratio: 16:9
    • Frames Per Second: 24-30-48-60
    • Scan: Interlace or Progressive
    • Digital 2K and 4 K
    • Quad HD & UHDTV
  • Video [lecture only]:
    • Magnetic/Multi-record/Instant Playback
    • Nonlinear Editing
    • Telecine (film TO video) / Scan (video TO film)
  • Film [lecture only]:
    • Super-8, 16mm & S-16mm, 35 & 65mm, IMAX
    • Chemical/ Processing Delay/ Single-record
    • Contrast Ratio (40:1 older video 1000:1 Film)
    • Resolution 4000x3000
    • Analog/physical editing
    • Shoot in Film / Edit in Video
    • Feature films, Some 1-hour TV dramas
  • Filmmaking 5 stages (p. 2):
    • Development/Pre/Production/Post/Distribution
  • Video Format/Digital Connections (pp. 8-21, 237-8)
    • Codec (compression) (5:1, 40:1, etc.)
    • Mbps (Megabits per second)
    • Composite or Component (HDMI) (RGB)
    • Data Connectors (USB, Firewire, Thunderbolt, SDI)
  • Film Systems (pp. 4, 39-40)
    • Intermittent Movement (camera or projector)
    • Shutter/Claw/Aperture/Frame (p. 40)
  • Camera Capture Speed (pp. 4, 82-3)
    • Slow Motion (Over-cranking) more than 24 fps
    • Fast Motion (Under-cranking) less than 24 fps
    • Intervalometer (Time-Lapse) = camera "clock"
    • High-Speed Cameras (Special Slow Motion)
    • Blurring (Wide Shutter) Baraka
    • Strobing (Narrow Shutter) Drumline
  • Film Formats; (width+size+shape) (pp. 41-7)
    • Larger format = better quality (resolution)
    • 35mm (1890s) = current theatrical films
      • 4-perf & 3-perf (holes per frame)
    • 16mm (1920s) & 8mm (1930s)
  • Film Stock (pp. 42-3)
    • Negative (not positive) /Reversal (positive)
    • Speed: Sensitivity to light (fast or slow)
      • Film, Sensor, Shutter, Lens
  • Editing Film On Video (p. 49)
    • NLE (computer editor), Dailies or Rushes
    • Video Out (Blu-ray, DVDs, TV)
    • Film Out: (DI) Digital Intermediate
  • Comparing Video Formats (pp. 21-31)
    • Analog (VHS)
    • Digital Standard Definition (Mini-DV)
    • Digital High Definition
      • HDV (prosumer) (tape only)
      • AVCHD (Advanced Video Coding) (non-tape)
    • Digital Cinematography:
      • Arri Alexa™, Red™, Sony F, SI-2K, Genesis™

Chapter 2: Before You Begin Production (pp. 53–101)

  • Before Production (pp. 53-60)
    • How to start production/Who is audience?
    • How much will it cost? (how to pay)
    • Work Backwards from the Budget
    • Work Backwards from the Distribution: Length
    • Acquisition/Capture (p. 60)
      • Video:cost benefits / Film: “look & feel”
    • Postproduction (How to edit?)
    • Distribution: Theatre/TV/DVD/Mobile/3D
  • Digital Television (DTV) (pp. 62-3)
    • HDTV or ATSC (USA transition 6/12/09)
    • 18 format variations
    • Lines: 1080 (HD) or 720 (HD) or 480 (SD)
    • Interlace (i) & Progressive Scan (p) (pp.11-14)
    • 24 (23.98), 30 (29.97), or 60 (59.94) frames/second
  • Camera Sensor Size (pp. 66-8)
  • Choosing a Camera (pp. 87-9)
    • DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex)
    • Video camera
    • Video tap (video inside film camera) (p. 267)
  • Recording Media (pp. 90-94)
    • Tape, Hard Drives (HDD or SSD)
    • Flash Memory Cards (SDHC: school cameras)
  • Aspect Ratio (pp. 74-81)
    • The width of the frame divided by the height
    • 1.33:1 - (4:3) Nonwidescreen: SD TV, 8&16mm Film (Academy Aperture)
    • 1.66:1 – (5:3) Super 16mm- European Features
    • 1.78:1 - (16:9) HD TVs & cameras (ATSC)
    • 1.85:1 - U.S. movie features: wide-screen
    • 2.35:1 - “Scope” - Anamorphic (cinemascope)
    • Anamorphic lenses (squeezed on camera, unsqueezed in projection/post)
    • Aspect Ratio Conversion: Widescreen (16:9) to Nonwidescreen (4:3):
      • Letterbox/EdgeCrop/Horizontal Squeeze
    • Aspect Ratio Conversion: Nonwidescreen (4:3) to Widescreen (16:9):
      • Sidebar or Pillarbox/Top Crop or Blow Up/Horizontal Stretch
    • Importance of Sound (pp. 97-99)
      • ADR(Automatic Dialog Replacement) (p. 98)
      • Foley (synchronous sound effects made in a studio) (p.635)
      • SFX (Sound Effects) all other WILD sound like narration, birds, traffic, guns (p. 644)
      • Single System Recording (recording sound in the camera with picture) (p. 35)
      • Double System Recording (recording sound separately from the camera) SLATE (p. 36)

Chapter 3: The Video Camcorder (pp. 102–141)

  • Video Sensor: light sensitive computer chip (pp. 6, 16, 29, 103, 136-7)
    • CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
      • Single Chip / Three Chip (Beam Splitter)
    • CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
  • Viewfinder Zebra = Exposure Indicator (p. 107)
  • Pixels (picture elements) (p. 6)
  • Camera Power (pp. 127-132)
    • AC Power Supply (power & charge battery)
    • Battery (Ni-Cad, NiMH, Li Ion (best))
  • Format/ Frame Rate (pp. 104-5)
    • 1080 or 720: usually set by the camera
    • 24 or 30 fps; progressive or interlace
    • Speed: ISO or Gain setting
  • Exposure (AE Shift) (pp. 107-9)
    • Backlight
  • Focus (auto vs. manual)
  • White Balance (auto vs. manual) (pp. 109-113)
    • Electronic compensation/different color light
    • Preset for indoor light (3200° K)
  • Image Stabilization (p. 140)
  • Low Light (Infrared) (p. 134)
  • In-Camera Effects (NO except: Skin Detail) (p. 140)
  • SMPTE Time Code (hours:minutes:seconds:frames)
  • Tape School Cameras (Mini-DV) lecture only:
    • YES: 16-bit audio, 2 tapes, Label, SP speed
    • NO: 12-bit audio, 16x9, Dew, Head Drum
  • Recording Media (Chips) (pp. 115-121)
    • Formatted, Backup 2 places, Copy all files
    • MTS files (editing or conversion software)

Chapter 4: The Lens (pp. 141–184)

  • Lens has two jobs (pp. 141-2):
    • Focus, Gather & Bend light rays
    • Control amount of light into camera (ƒ-stop)
    • Elements (several pieces of glass) Barrel
    • Flare (antireflective coatings)
  • Focal Length in millimeters (pp. 141-2)
    • Measures the power of a lens to bend light
      • Short (wide), Medium (normal), Long (telephoto)
  • Prime Lenses: only one focal length (50mm, etc.)
  • Zoom Lenses: variable focal length
  • Optical Zoom Range (Canon HF-R300: 2.8–89.6mm)
  • Focal Plane (surface of film or sensor)
  • Sensor Magnification/Crop Factor (pp. 148-151)
    • Camera sensor size affects view of view
  • Depth of Field (pp. 153-158)
    • To minimize depth of field (p. 156):
      • Open up iris/longer focal length/move closer
    • To maximize depth of field (p. 156):
      • Close down iris/shorter focal length/move farther away
  • Focal Length/Perspective (pp. 143-7):
    • Dolly - get closer to the object
    • Zoom - change focal length
  • Zoom vs. Dolly (Perspective) (p. 144)
  • Speed (pp. 151-3) Light gathering power
    • The faster a lens = more light let through
    • The slower a lens = less light let through
    • ƒ-Number is the ratio between the focal length of the lens and its diameter
    • ƒ-stop (white) - the light gathering power of the lens at any iris diaphragm opening
    • t-stop (used in cinema-red) accounts for light loss & always a higher number
    • Standard ƒ-stop series (p. 152)
      • 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32
    • Numbers get smaller = “hole” gets bigger
    • Each stop equals halving or doubling of light
    • Higher numbers = less light; “stopping down”
    • Lower numbers = more light; “opening up”
  • Setting the Focus (p. 15, 153-162)
    • Tape Measure - measure from focal plane (p. 159)
    • Pulling focus: changing focus during a take, usually done by First Assistant Camera
    • Video cameras focused “by eye” & tape
    • Hyperfocal Distance (focus to infinity) (p. 162)
    • Prime Lenses for Special Uses (pp. 168-9)
      • Fast (low light); Telephoto (NFL Films™)
      • Macro Lenses (focus very close)
      • Close-Up / Split Field Diopters (pp. 170-1)
    • Lens Quality (Aberrations) (pp. 171-174)
      • Vignetting, Chromatic, Sharpness, Flare
    • Lens Seating Problems (pp. 180-182):
      • Depth of Focus/Back Focus (pp. 180-182)
    • Lens Care (wet or brush - no dry cloth) (pp. 183-4)

Chapter 7: The Film Image (pp. 271–303)

  • Raw Stock: unexposed film/ “look” (pp. 271-8)
  • Emulsion and Base
    • Tungsten (indoors) or Daylight (outdoors) balanced
  • Chemical Changes: Optional (pp. 277-8)
    • Push = brightens
    • Pull = darkens
    • Flashing = reduces contrast
    • Skip bleach (p. 278)
  • Contrast (pp. 276-278)
    • Separation of light and dark tones
  • Characteristic Curve (p. 276-8)
  • Gamma (steepness of straight line section)
  • Film Speed (sensitivity to light) (pp. 275-6)
    • EI (Exposure Index) (motion picture film)
    • ASA (American Standard)
    • ISO: ASA first, then DIN (i.e., EI 500/28°)
  • Graininess: visible particles of chemicals/dyes (p. 279)
    • Faster film = larger, more visible grain
  • Kodak stocks (pp. 281-5)
    • 72_ _ for 16mm; (52_ _ for 35mm)
  • Latent Edge Numbers (seen after processing) (p. 283)
  • Refrigerate Film Stock
  • Avoid X-Rays
  • Exposure (p. 286)
    • Overexpose (too light)
    • Underexpose (too dark)
    • Important Elements with sufficient detail
  • Light Meters (pp. 286-292)
    • Direct (digital); Indirect (analog)
    • Incident Light
      • hold near subject - point to camera
    • Flat Disk Diffuser (individual lights)
    • 18% Gray Card
    • Spot Meter (1°)
    • EXPOSURE = INTENSITY X TIME
      • Exposure = amount of light to each frame
    • Intensity = light passing through lens (ƒ-Stops)
    • Time or duration of the exposure:
      • 1/48 second (1/50) = 1/24 x 1/2
      • 1/60 second for U.S. video
    • Film speed (ASA/EI) set to speed on film box
    • DV speed: 325-500 ASA (depends on sensor)
    • shutter speed: 1/50 second film (1/60=DV)
    • Filter Factor: for light loss w/ filter (p. 311)
    • t-stops DO account for lost light
  • Four Ways to Control Exposure (p. 298):
    • 1) Film Speed (Digital = gain)
    • 2) Lens (ƒ-Stops)
    • 3) Shutter Speed
    • 4) Ambient Light
  • Exposure (pp. 296-7)
    • Exposure Range = bright/dark/good detail
    • Negative film: 10-12 ƒ/stops
    • Reversal film & consumer video: 6 ƒ/stops
    • High End Digital Video: 14+ ƒ/stops

Chapter 8: Color & Filters (pp. 304–320)

  • Additive Primaries (RGB) (video & film) (pp. 304-5)
  • Subtractive Primaries (CYM) (printing) (pp. 304-5)
  • Color Temperature: Kelvin Scale (pp. 308-11)
  • Emotionally:
    • Warm light source [3200° K tungsten]
    • Cold light source [5600° K daylight]
  • Conversion Filters (pp. 280-1, 310)
    • #85 (orange) converts Tungsten for Daylight
    • #80 (blue) converts Daylight for Tungsten
  • Matte Box / Lens Hood (pp. 317-9)
  • Special Filters (pp. 311-7)
    • UV/1A (ultraviolet)
    • Neutral Density (less light: neutral color)
    • Grads (half color/half clear)
    • Polarizing (reduces reflections glass/water)
    • Diffusion (dreamy, soft)
    • Low Contrast (ProMist)
    • Fog/ Star
  • Software filters (plug-in)

There will be a total of 50 questions in the format of Multiple Choice and True/False.
There will also be extra credit questions on the videos that have been shown in class.

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