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Joni Varner

Lecture Outline & Test Terms for 2013 Book (Cinema 1 / Exam #2)

Page numbers are from: The Filmmaker's Handbook 2013 Edition. You will need to bring a Scantron (#882) form to class (for sale in the LACC Bookstore an ASG) and a #2 pencil. This is NOT an open book test, but use of an English/foreign language dictionary is allowed.

Chapter 9: The Shoot (pp. 321-401)

  • Production Crew (pp. 361-2)
    • Producer(s)
    • Unit Production Manager (U.P.M.)
    • 1st Assistant Director (A.D.)
    • 2nd Assistant Director (A.D.) (background)
    • Script Supervisor (continuity)
    • Production Assistant (P.A.)
    • Director
    • Casting (p. 363)
    • Director of Photography (D.P.)
    • Camera Operator (camera movement)
    • 1st Assistant Camera Operator (A.C.)
    • 2nd Assistant Camera Operator (A.C.)
    • Digital Image Technician (D.I.T.)
    • Still Photographer
    • Sound:
      • Mixer/Boom Operator/Cable
    • Electrical:
      • Gaffer/ Best Boy/ Electricians
    • Grip:
      • Key/ Best Boy/ Grips/ Dolly
    • Art Department:
      • Prod Designer/ Art Director
      • Set Decorator/ Dresser
      • Construction/ Greens people
    • Props
    • Make-Up:
      • Keys: Hair & Make-Up
      • Special Effects Make-Up
    • Wardrobe:
      • Costume Designer/ Costumers
    • Locations (pp. 364-5)
    • Transportation (Drivers)
    • Physical Effects (Mechanical)
    • Visual Effects (VFX)
    • Second Unit (p. 362)
  • MOS (no sound) (pp. 333-4, 369)
  • Scenes/Shots (pp. 322-3, 369-70)
    • Example: Scene 8 B - Take 14
  • Takes/ Setup (p. 323)
  • Circled Takes (p. 370)
  • Standard Shot Progression (p. 334-5)
    • Master Shot (whole scene) (p. 334)
    • Long Shot / Medium Shot
    • Close-Ups
  • Angle/ Reverse-Angle Shot (p. 323)
  • Point-of-View Shot (P.O.V.) (p. 324)
  • Static Shot/Moving Shot (p. 328-9)
  • Pick-Ups (pp. 360, 372-3)
  • Storyboard (pp. 356-7)
  • Camera Angles (Height)
    • High/Eye/Low Level (Not in book)
  • Screen Direction (pp. 344-5)
  • 180-Degree Rule (Line)(neutral shot) (pp.344-5)
  • Director's Finder (pp. 364-5)
  • Gaffer's Glass (Contrast Viewing)
  • Composition (pp. 324-328)
    • Leading the Action/Look Space
    • Rule of Thirds/TV Safe (p. 325)
  • Continuity (pp. 341-3)
    • Overlap of Action
  • Cutaways/Inserts (p. 342)
  • Jump Cuts (p. 342)
  • Pulled (Rack) Focus (p. 326)
  • Dutch Angle (Dutch Tilt) (pp. 326-7)
  • Shooting Ratio (10:1 etc.) (pp. 360-1)
  • Tripod Heads (pp. 378-9)
    • Friction/ Fluid/ Geared Heads
  • Tripod Legs (pp. 379-81)
    • Standard/Baby Legs/High Hat
  • Spreader (Spider, Triangle) (p. 379)
  • Suction Cup Camera Mounts (pp. 385-6)
  • Apple Boxes (p. 381)
  • Speed-Rail®
  • Pan & Tilt, Swish Pan (p. 329)
  • Dolly (Crab), Track, Truck (pp. 330-1)
  • Camera Crane or Boom (p. 381)
  • Hand-held camera (pp. 386-7)
  • Moving Vehicle Shooting (pp. 385-6)
  • Image Stabilization Devices (pp. 387-9)
    • Mechanical/Optical for High End DV Cameras
    • Electronic for Consumer DV (EIS)
    • Steadicam™ (pp. 388-9)
  • 3D (Stereoscopy) (pp. 396-401)

Chapter 10: Sound Recording Systems (pp. 402–434)

  • Frequency/Pitch (Hz) (pp. 403-4)
  • Amplitude (Volume) (p. 403)
    • dB (Decibels)
  • Dynamic Range (measured in dB) (p. 403)
  • S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio) (p. 403)
  • Sweetening (p. 637)
  • Magnetic Tape Recorders (pp. 405-6):
    • DAT (Digital Audio Tape) (p. 410)
    • Nagra™ Analog Reel-to-Reel (p. 410)
      • Pilot Head/Playback Head (p. 419)
  • Types: Digital Audio Recorders (pp. 410-11)
    • Zoom™, Tascam™, etc.
    • Laptop (Hard Drive)
    • Flash Memory, Optical Media (DVD/CD)
    • Smartphone
    • Double system syncing software
  • Recording in the Video Camera (pp. 417-9)
    • Challenges: (poor built in mic, mini plug, noisy pre-amp and no phantom power)
  • Resolution (Sound Quality) (pp. 408-9)
    • Sampling Rate
    • Bit Depth (precision)
    • Most camcorders 48 KHz at 16 Bits (p. 414)
  • Audio File Formats (pp. 413-4)
    • BWF
    • AIFF, MARF, SDII, WMA, MP3, AAC, FLAC
  • Microphones (pp. 420-4)
    • Mic vs. Line Level (p. 431)
    • Microphone Types (p. 420)
      • Dynamic (Rugged/No Battery)
      • Condenser (Sensitive/Needs Power)
    • Pick-Up Patterns (Directionality): (pp. 420-2)
      • Omnidirectional (Non-Directional)
      • Cardioid (Front & Sides)
      • Hypercardioid (Front Only) (Shotgun)
    • Types & Usage (pp.425-9)
      • Hand/Boom/Fishpole/Lavaliere (Lapel)
      • Wireless Mics (RF) (p. 428-9)
    • Windscreen/Zeppelin (hard) (pp. 424-5)
  • Balanced/Unbalanced Cable (pp. 432-4)
  • Impedance
    • High & Low (long cable) (p. 434)
    • Matching Transformer (p. 434)
  • Audio Connectors (pp. 432-3)
    • (Balanced) XLR & 3 Conductor
    • (Unbalanced): Mini/ 1/4" / Phono

Chapter 11: Sound Recording Techniques (pp. 435–470)

  • Sound Person or Mixer: (pp. 362, 440-2)
    • Mic, Cable, Headphones, Recorder, Mixer
    • Prepares Sound Report / Labels
    • Reference Tone (for setting amplitude) (p. 452)
    • Head/Tail Slate (p. 370)
  • VU Meter (Volume Unit) (0 dB) (pp. 448-52)
  • Digital Levels (-20dB) (p. 452)
    • Avg. peaks about -20dB, not above -10dB
  • Level/Gain/Pot (p. 446)
  • Automatic Gain Control (or AGC) (pp. 453-4)
  • Ambient Sound/Room Tone (p. 444-5)
  • Acoustics (Live, Dead) (p. 445)
  • Ideal Placement of Mics (1-3 feet) (pp. 442-3)
    • Proximity Effect (too close)
  • Multiple Microphones:
    • Phase Cancellation (weakens) (p. 460)
  • Slate/Clapper/Sticks (pp. 466-9)
    • Head/Tail Slate
  • Time Code (Digi-Slate) (p. 466)
  • Recording a "Hollywood Style" Take (p. 370)

Chapter 12: Lighting (pp. 471–520)

  • Available Light (p. 471)
  • Naturalistic Light (pp. 498, 506)
  • Hard Light/Specular Light (p. 472)
  • Soft Light /Diffuse Light (pp. 472-3)
  • Top Light/Underlight (p. 476)
  • Lighting Contrast (pp. 476-8)
    • Low Key/High Contrast
    • High Key/Low Contrast
  • Wattage: 1k, 2k, 5k, 10k (p. 479)
    • Aces (1k) and Deuces (2k) (p. 486)
    • Spots: Inky/Baby/Junior/Senior
  • Inverse Square Law (pp. 479-80)
  • Lamp Head/Bulb (p. 480)
  • Tungsten-Halogen-Quartz (p. 480)
    • (CTO) 3200°K
  • HMI Lights (formerly carbon arc) (p.481)
    • (CTB) 5600°K
  • Fluorescent Bulbs (pp. 483-5)
  • Plusgreen/Minusgreen Gels (p. 516)
  • Spotlights (Focusing) (pp. 486-7)
    • Fresnel Lens (p. 486)
    • Open Face (No Lens) (p. 487)
  • Floodlights (Nonfocusing) (pp. 487-8)
    • (PAR) Sealed-Beam Lights
    • Scoops/Broads
  • Diffusion Materials (p. 488)
    • Lee 216/250
    • Rosco Opal Tough Frost
    • Rosco Soft Frost
  • Scrims (reduce light intensity) (p. 464)
  • Bounce Light (p. 489)
    • Foam Core/Show Cards
  • Reflectors (p. 491)
    • Foil or Space Blanket
  • Eye/Obie/Bash Light (p. 492)
  • LED Lights (pp. 485-6)
  • Spill Light Control (pp. 493-4)
    • Flags, Barndoors, Net, Cucoloris, Snoot
  • C-Stands (Century Stands) (p. 496)
  • Location Lighting: Polecats, etc. (p. 496)
    • Practicals (pp. 491-2)
  • Dimmers (p. 496)
  • Gels: CTO & CTB (p. 496)
  • Dichroic Filters (match TO daylight) (pp. 497-8)
  • Three Point Lighting (pp. 499-501)
    • Key/Fill/Back
  • Lighting Contrast (p. 512)
    • Typical Ratios: (2:1, 3:1, 4:1)
  • Butterfly/Silk (pp. 513)
  • Magic/Golden Hour (p. 517)
  • Night/Day for Night (p. 517)
  • Mixed Color Temperature (pp. 514-6)
  • Formula for determining amps (p. 518)
    • Amps = Watts/Volts

There will be a total of 50 questions in the format of Multiple Choice and True/False.
There will also be extra credit questions on the videos that have been shown in class.

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